Section 1: Introduction

  1. 1.1
    1. Section 1.1
      1. Section 1.2 Innovative systems
        1. Section 1.3 European directives
          1. Section 1.4 Status of guide
            1. Section 1.5 How to use this guide
              1. Section 1.6 Key terms
                1. Section 1.7 Working on Existing Systems
                  1. Section 1.8 Replacement of primary heating appliances
                    1. Section 1.9 Summary of recommended minimum energy efficiency standards

                      1.1

                      1.1 Scope This guide provides detailed guidance for the installation of fixed building services in new and existing dwellings to help compliance with the energy efficiency requirements of the Building Regulations. This edition covers the design, installation and commissioning of: • conventional means of providing primary and secondary space heating, domestic hot water, mechanical ventilation, comfort cooling and internal and external lighting • low carbon generation of heat by heat pumps, solar thermal panels, and micro-combined heat and power systems. The guide sets out recommended minimum energy efficiency standards for components of building services systems, including the use of controls. For systems installed in new dwellings, the standards are design limits (or backstop values). For new or replacement systems and components installed in existing dwellings, the standards represent reasonable provision for complying with the Building Regulations. It is important to note that standards higher than many of these recommended minimum standards will need to be achieved if: • new dwellings are to meet the the Building Regulations target carbon dioxide emission rate (TER) calculated using SAP1 • systems are to comply with the Microgeneration Certification Scheme standards2 that enable building owners to receive payments under the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) and qualify for Green Deal funding • products are to be recognised as renewable technologies under the Renewable Energy Directive. The guide includes some supplementary information that identifies good practice design and installation standards that exceed the minimum standards in this guide. Microgeneration Certification Scheme standards are an example of good practice standards. A summary of recommended minimum energy efficiency standards is presented in Table 1 at the end of this section. 1.2 Innovative systems It is also important to note that this guide covers a range of frequently occurring situations and deals with the most commonly used fixed building services technologies. In doing so it neither endorses these methods and technologies nor excludes other more innovative technologies that may offer an alternative means of meeting the functional requirements of the Building Regulations. Where the alternative technology has been the subject of a recognised testing procedure that assesses its energy performance, this may be used to indicate that the system is adequately efficient. In the event that there is no recognised testing standard, suitable calculations or modelling methods may be used to show the carbon performance of the system. 1.3 European directives The design and installation of fixed building services products, such as boilers, circulators and heat pumps, shall at the appropriate time comply with all relevant requirements of EU directives as implemented in the United Kingdom. There are a number of directives with requirements that directly or indirectly control the energy efficiency of building services. The Ecodesign Directive 2009/125/EC provides a framework for establishing requirements for ‘energy- related’ products placed on the EU market. Current requirements cover ‘energy-using’ products such as boilers, light bulbs and washing machines. In the future, requirements will also cover products such as windows, insulation material and shower heads whose use has an impact on energy consumption. The requirements are set out in Commission Regulations listed in the document http://ec.europa. eu/energy/efficiency/ecodesign/doc/overview_legislation_eco-design.pdf. Products covered by the regulations can only be CE marked and placed on the market if they meet the ecodesign standards specified. At the time of preparation of this guide, Commission Regulations existed or were being developed for: • space heaters and combination heaters • water heaters and hot water storage tanks • glandless standalone circulators and glandless circulators integrated in products • water pumps • air conditioners and comfort fans • fans driven by motors with an electric input power between 125 W and 500 W • lighting products in the domestic and tertiary sectors • electric motors. The intention is that the recommended minimum product standards in this guide should at least match the energy efficiency standards set out in Commission Regulations as they come into force. For example, although the implementing regulations for hot water storage tanks were published in September 2013, the standards do not come into force until September 2017. If in any doubt as to whether a product is subject to minimum ecodesign standards, check the Commission document above. The Energy Labelling Directive 2010/30/EU complements the Ecodesign Directive by providing a framework for labelling of energy-related products including lamps, luminaires, household air conditioners and washing machines. The Energy Label classifies products on an A to G scale, ‘pulling’ the market towards more efficient products by better informing consumers. The Ecodesign Directive, by contrast, uses regulation to ‘push’ the market away from the worst performing products. The Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC provides a framework for the promotion of energy from renewable resources. It sets a mandatory UK target of 15% energy generation from renewable sources by 2020 – the ‘renewable energy obligation’ – as a contribution to meeting the EU’s overall target of 20%. Of relevance to building services is that the directive identifies criteria for training and certification of installers of renewables. The directive also specifies in Annex VII the standards that heat pumps must achieve to be recognised as renewable technologies by the directive. The Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU establishes a common framework of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency within the EU in order to ensure that the EU meets its target of a 20% reduction in primary energy consumption by 2020. Legislation to implement the directive in the UK will be published by 5 June 2014. Included will be requirements for public authorities to purchase only energy-efficient products, services and buildings; and requirements for heat meters to be fitted in apartments and buildings connected to a central source of heating or a district heating network. For more information on the specific requirements and technical standards, see the DECC website3. The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive 2010/31/EU is a recast of the original 2002/91/EC directive, which in 2002 introduced requirements for: • the establishment of a methodology for calculating the integrated energy performance of buildings • minimum energy performance requirements for new buildings, and, where feasible, for larger buildings undergoing major renovation • energy performance certification of buildings, and • inspections of heating and air conditioning systems. The recast directive includes a new requirement to consider in the design of new buildings the feasibility of using renewables and other ‘high-efficiency alternative systems’. There is no mandatory format for this assessment, but it will now be necessary to declare (through a new field in the energy performance calculation software) that it has been carried out. The Building Regulations, which already met the original requirements in many ways (for example by setting standards for new buildings), have been amended in some places to reflect the new requirements of the directive. For guidance on the changes affecting new dwellings, see Approved Document L1A. For guidance on the changes affecting major renovations, see Approved Document L1B. For guidance on other requirements relating to building certification and inspection of heating and air conditioning systems, see the DCLG website4. 1.4 Status of guide The Building Regulations contain functional requirements, such as requirements that buildings must be structurally stable, constructed and fitted to ensure fire protection, and energy efficient. These functional requirements are often drafted in broad terms, and so it may not always be immediately clear to a person carrying out work how to comply with the relevant requirements. Consequently, the Department for Communities and Local Government issues documents, known as approved documents, which provide practical guidance on ways of complying with specific aspects of the Building Regulations in some of the more common building situations. Approved documents are not always comprehensive and may contain references to other documents which will provide more detailed information and assistance on parts of the guidance. This guide is one of those documents: it provides more detailed information on the guidance contained in Approved Documents L1A and L1B about compliance with the energy efficiency requirements which apply when installing fixed building services in new and existing dwellings. If you follow the relevant guidance in an approved document, and in any document referred to in the approved document (such as this guide) which provides additional information to help you follow that guidance, there is a legal presumption that you have complied with the Building Regulations. However, in each case it is for the building control body (local authority or approved inspector) to decide whether work complies with the requirements of the Building Regulations. It is therefore sensible that you check with the building control body before starting work what they consider it is necessary for you to do to comply with the requirements of the Building Regulations. 1.5 How to use this guide The guide comprises four fuel-based sections and nine technology-specific sections: • Fuel-based Section 2: Gas-fired space and water heating Section 3: Oil-fired space and water heating Section 4: Electric heating Section 5: Solid fuel heating • Technology-specific Section 6: Community heating Section 7: Underfloor heating Section 8: Mechanical ventilation Section 9: Heat pumps Section 10: Comfort cooling Section 11: Solar water heating Section 12: Lighting Section 13: Micro-combined heat and power Section 14: Heating system circulators For any particular application, reference may need to be made to more than one section. Supplementary information is shown against a blue background. This may be further information to help with interpreting the minimum energy efficiency provisions needed to comply with the Building Regulations. Or it may be guidance on best practice that goes beyond the recommended minimum standards. Key terms are printed in blue at appropriate points throughout the guide. 1.6 Key terms Fixed building services means any part of, or any controls associated with: a. fixed internal or external lighting systems, but does not include emergency escape lighting or specialist process lighting b. fixed systems for heating, domestic hot water, air conditioning or mechanical ventilation, or c. any combination of systems of the kinds referred to in sub-paragraph a. or b. New system means a fixed building services system installed: a. in a new building b. for the first time in an existing building c. as a complete replacement for a system in an existing building. Seasonal efficiency means the efficiency value used by SAP for a heating appliance. For gas, LPG and oil boilers that have been tested for efficiency, this is SEDBUK5. 1.7 Work on existing systems A requirement of the Building Regulations is that work on existing buildings should be carried out in such a way that when the work is complete: a. the work itself complies with the applicable requirements of the Building Regulations b. the parts of the building not affected by the work are no more unsatisfactory in relation to the requirements of the Regulations than before the work was started. This means that when a system component like a boiler or a room thermostat is replaced, only the new component is expected to comply with the standards in this guide (which in some cases may be lower than for new systems). It is not a general requirement to upgrade the rest of the existing system, but this guide does include some recommendations on minor upgrades for compliance with the Building Regulations where they would be cost-effective and may be necessary to ensure efficient operation of the new component. Some of the supplementary information is guidance on good practice that, while not essential for compliance with the Building Regulations, would help to save energy. For example, it is convenient and timely to fit thermostatic radiator valves when replacing a boiler and the system has been drained down. 1.8 Replacement of primary heating appliances When replacing an existing appliance, the efficiency of the new appliance should not be significantly less than the efficiency of the appliance being replaced. If the replacement involves a fuel switch, then the relative carbon emissions associated with the new and existing fuels should be considered when assessing the reasonableness of the proposed new appliance. The aim is to discourage replacement of an existing appliance by a significantly less carbon efficient one. Replacement not involving fuel or energy switch Where the primary heating appliance is replaced by one using the same fuel or energy supply, the seasonal efficiency of the new equipment should be: a. as stated in the relevant fuel-based section of this guide, and b. not worse than 2 percentage points lower than the seasonal efficiency of the controlled service being replaced. If the efficiency of the appliance to be replaced is not known, efficiency values may be taken from Table 4a or 4b of SAP 2012. Replacement involving fuel or energy switch If the new heating appliance uses a different fuel, the efficiency of the new service should be multiplied by the ratio of the carbon dioxide emission factor of the fuel used in the service being replaced to that of the fuel used in the new service, to obtain the ‘carbon equivalent efficiency’. The checks described in sub- paragraphs a. and b. above should then be made. The carbon dioxide emission factors should be taken from Table 12 of SAP 2012. Electric flow boilers It will not normally be possible to replace a gas boiler with an electric flow boiler and meet the standard above for replacements involving an energy switch. However, if it is not practicable or permissible to fit a replacement gas boiler in a dwelling – for example because the boiler installation would not comply with relevant British Standards or the Building Regulations, or listed building consent has not been granted to install a new flue or gas supply – then, provided there is no possible alternative, fitting an electric flow boiler in accordance with the guidance on electric heating systems in Section 4 of this guide would be acceptable, and count as making ‘reasonable provision’ for the purposes of complying with the requirements of the Building Regulations. Example An old oil-fired boiler with a seasonal efficiency of 72% is to be replaced by a dual solid fuel boiler. The new dual solid fuel boiler should have: a. a seasonal efficiency not less than 65% (from Table 21 in this guide), and b. a carbon equivalent efficiency not less than 70%. A dual solid fuel boiler with a seasonal efficiency of 65% will meet condition b. as its carbon equivalent efficiency is: 65%(0.2980.226)85.7% where 0.298 and 0.226 kgCO2/kWh are the emission factors for oil and dual solid fuels respectively. 1.9 Summary of recommended minimum energy efficiency standards ****Table 1   Recommended minimum energy efficiency standards for building   services****  

                      Section 1.1

                      1.1 Scope This guide provides detailed guidance for the installation of fixed building services in new and existing dwellings to help compliance with the energy efficiency requirements of the Building Regulations. This edition covers the design, installation and commissioning of: • conventional means of providing primary and secondary space heating, domestic hot water, mechanical ventilation, comfort cooling and internal and external lighting • low carbon generation of heat by heat pumps, solar thermal panels, and micro-combined heat and power systems. The guide sets out recommended minimum energy efficiency standards for components of building services systems, including the use of controls. For systems installed in new dwellings, the standards are design limits (or backstop values). For new or replacement systems and components installed in existing dwellings, the standards represent reasonable provision for complying with the Building Regulations. It is important to note that standards higher than many of these recommended minimum standards will need to be achieved if: • new dwellings are to meet the the Building Regulations target carbon dioxide emission rate (TER) calculated using SAP1 • systems are to comply with the Microgeneration Certification Scheme standards2 that enable building owners to receive payments under the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) and qualify for Green Deal funding • products are to be recognised as renewable technologies under the Renewable Energy Directive. The guide includes some supplementary information that identifies good practice design and installation standards that exceed the minimum standards in this guide. Microgeneration Certification Scheme standards are an example of good practice standards. A summary of recommended minimum energy efficiency standards is presented in Table 1 at the end of this section.  

                      Section 1.2 Innovative systems

                      1.2 Innovative systems It is also important to note that this guide covers a range of frequently occurring situations and deals with the most commonly used fixed building services technologies. In doing so it neither endorses these methods and technologies nor excludes other more innovative technologies that may offer an alternative means of meeting the functional requirements of the Building Regulations. Where the alternative technology has been the subject of a recognised testing procedure that assesses its energy performance, this may be used to indicate that the system is adequately efficient. In the event that there is no recognised testing standard, suitable calculations or modelling methods may be used to show the carbon performance of the system.  

                      Section 1.3 European directives

                      1.3 European directives The design and installation of fixed building services products, such as boilers, circulators and heat pumps, shall at the appropriate time comply with all relevant requirements of EU directives as implemented in the United Kingdom. There are a number of directives with requirements that directly or indirectly control the energy efficiency of building services. The Ecodesign Directive 2009/125/EC provides a framework for establishing requirements for ‘energy- related’ products placed on the EU market. Current requirements cover ‘energy-using’ products such as boilers, light bulbs and washing machines. In the future, requirements will also cover products such as windows, insulation material and shower heads whose use has an impact on energy consumption. The requirements are set out in Commission Regulations listed in the document http://ec.europa. eu/energy/efficiency/ecodesign/doc/overview_legislation_eco-design.pdf. Products covered by the regulations can only be CE marked and placed on the market if they meet the ecodesign standards specified. At the time of preparation of this guide, Commission Regulations existed or were being developed for: • space heaters and combination heaters • water heaters and hot water storage tanks • glandless standalone circulators and glandless circulators integrated in products • water pumps • air conditioners and comfort fans • fans driven by motors with an electric input power between 125 W and 500 W • lighting products in the domestic and tertiary sectors • electric motors. The intention is that the recommended minimum product standards in this guide should at least match the energy efficiency standards set out in Commission Regulations as they come into force. For example, although the implementing regulations for hot water storage tanks were published in September 2013, the standards do not come into force until September 2017. If in any doubt as to whether a product is subject to minimum ecodesign standards, check the Commission document above. The Energy Labelling Directive 2010/30/EU complements the Ecodesign Directive by providing a framework for labelling of energy-related products including lamps, luminaires, household air conditioners and washing machines. The Energy Label classifies products on an A to G scale, ‘pulling’ the market towards more efficient products by better informing consumers. The Ecodesign Directive, by contrast, uses regulation to ‘push’ the market away from the worst performing products. The Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC provides a framework for the promotion of energy from renewable resources. It sets a mandatory UK target of 15% energy generation from renewable sources by 2020 – the ‘renewable energy obligation’ – as a contribution to meeting the EU’s overall target of 20%. Of relevance to building services is that the directive identifies criteria for training and certification of installers of renewables. The directive also specifies in Annex VII the standards that heat pumps must achieve to be recognised as renewable technologies by the directive. The Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU establishes a common framework of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency within the EU in order to ensure that the EU meets its target of a 20% reduction in primary energy consumption by 2020. Legislation to implement the directive in the UK will be published by 5 June 2014. Included will be requirements for public authorities to purchase only energy-efficient products, services and buildings; and requirements for heat meters to be fitted in apartments and buildings connected to a central source of heating or a district heating network. For more information on the specific requirements and technical standards, see the DECC website3. The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive 2010/31/EU is a recast of the original 2002/91/EC directive, which in 2002 introduced requirements for: • the establishment of a methodology for calculating the integrated energy performance of buildings • minimum energy performance requirements for new buildings, and, where feasible, for larger buildings undergoing major renovation • energy performance certification of buildings, and • inspections of heating and air conditioning systems. The recast directive includes a new requirement to consider in the design of new buildings the feasibility of using renewables and other ‘high-efficiency alternative systems’. There is no mandatory format for this assessment, but it will now be necessary to declare (through a new field in the energy performance calculation software) that it has been carried out. The Building Regulations, which already met the original requirements in many ways (for example by setting standards for new buildings), have been amended in some places to reflect the new requirements of the directive. For guidance on the changes affecting new dwellings, see Approved Document L1A. For guidance on the changes affecting major renovations, see Approved Document L1B. For guidance on other requirements relating to building certification and inspection of heating and air conditioning systems, see the DCLG website4.  

                      Section 1.4 Status of guide

                      1.4 Status of guide The Building Regulations contain functional requirements, such as requirements that buildings must be structurally stable, constructed and fitted to ensure fire protection, and energy efficient. These functional requirements are often drafted in broad terms, and so it may not always be immediately clear to a person carrying out work how to comply with the relevant requirements. Consequently, the Department for Communities and Local Government issues documents, known as approved documents, which provide practical guidance on ways of complying with specific aspects of the Building Regulations in some of the more common building situations. Approved documents are not always comprehensive and may contain references to other documents which will provide more detailed information and assistance on parts of the guidance. This guide is one of those documents: it provides more detailed information on the guidance contained in Approved Documents L1A and L1B about compliance with the energy efficiency requirements which apply when installing fixed building services in new and existing dwellings. If you follow the relevant guidance in an approved document, and in any document referred to in the approved document (such as this guide) which provides additional information to help you follow that guidance, there is a legal presumption that you have complied with the Building Regulations. However, in each case it is for the building control body (local authority or approved inspector) to decide whether work complies with the requirements of the Building Regulations. It is therefore sensible that you check with the building control body before starting work what they consider it is necessary for you to do to comply with the requirements of the Building Regulations.  

                      Section 1.5 How to use this guide

                      1.5 How to use this guide The guide comprises four fuel-based sections and nine technology-specific sections: • Fuel-based Section 2: Gas-fired space and water heating Section 3: Oil-fired space and water heating Section 4: Electric heating Section 5: Solid fuel heating • Technology-specific Section 6: Community heating Section 7: Underfloor heating Section 8: Mechanical ventilation Section 9: Heat pumps Section 10: Comfort cooling Section 11: Solar water heating Section 12: Lighting Section 13: Micro-combined heat and power Section 14: Heating system circulators For any particular application, reference may need to be made to more than one section. Supplementary information is shown against a blue background. This may be further information to help with interpreting the minimum energy efficiency provisions needed to comply with the Building Regulations. Or it may be guidance on best practice that goes beyond the recommended minimum standards. Key terms are printed in blue at appropriate points throughout the guide.  

                      Section 1.6 Key terms

                      1.6 Key terms Fixed building services means any part of, or any controls associated with: a. fixed internal or external lighting systems, but does not include emergency escape lighting or specialist process lighting b. fixed systems for heating, domestic hot water, air conditioning or mechanical ventilation, or c. any combination of systems of the kinds referred to in sub-paragraph a. or b. New system means a fixed building services system installed: a. in a new building b. for the first time in an existing building c. as a complete replacement for a system in an existing building. Seasonal efficiency means the efficiency value used by SAP for a heating appliance. For gas, LPG and oil boilers that have been tested for efficiency, this is SEDBUK5.  

                      Section 1.7 Working on Existing Systems

                      1.7 Work on existing systems A requirement of the Building Regulations is that work on existing buildings should be carried out in such a way that when the work is complete: a. the work itself complies with the applicable requirements of the Building Regulations b. the parts of the building not affected by the work are no more unsatisfactory in relation to the requirements of the Regulations than before the work was started. This means that when a system component like a boiler or a room thermostat is replaced, only the new component is expected to comply with the standards in this guide (which in some cases may be lower than for new systems). It is not a general requirement to upgrade the rest of the existing system, but this guide does include some recommendations on minor upgrades for compliance with the Building Regulations where they would be cost-effective and may be necessary to ensure efficient operation of the new component. Some of the supplementary information is guidance on good practice that, while not essential for compliance with the Building Regulations, would help to save energy. For example, it is convenient and timely to fit thermostatic radiator valves when replacing a boiler and the system has been drained down.  

                      Section 1.8 Replacement of primary heating appliances

                      1.8 Replacement of primary heating appliances When replacing an existing appliance, the efficiency of the new appliance should not be significantly less than the efficiency of the appliance being replaced. If the replacement involves a fuel switch, then the relative carbon emissions associated with the new and existing fuels should be considered when assessing the reasonableness of the proposed new appliance. The aim is to discourage replacement of an existing appliance by a significantly less carbon efficient one. Replacement not involving fuel or energy switch Where the primary heating appliance is replaced by one using the same fuel or energy supply, the seasonal efficiency of the new equipment should be: a. as stated in the relevant fuel-based section of this guide, and b. not worse than 2 percentage points lower than the seasonal efficiency of the controlled service being replaced. If the efficiency of the appliance to be replaced is not known, efficiency values may be taken from Table 4a or 4b of SAP 2012. Replacement involving fuel or energy switch If the new heating appliance uses a different fuel, the efficiency of the new service should be multiplied by the ratio of the carbon dioxide emission factor of the fuel used in the service being replaced to that of the fuel used in the new service, to obtain the ‘carbon equivalent efficiency’. The checks described in sub- paragraphs a. and b. above should then be made. The carbon dioxide emission factors should be taken from Table 12 of SAP 2012. Electric flow boilers It will not normally be possible to replace a gas boiler with an electric flow boiler and meet the standard above for replacements involving an energy switch. However, if it is not practicable or permissible to fit a replacement gas boiler in a dwelling – for example because the boiler installation would not comply with relevant British Standards or the Building Regulations, or listed building consent has not been granted to install a new flue or gas supply – then, provided there is no possible alternative, fitting an electric flow boiler in accordance with the guidance on electric heating systems in Section 4 of this guide would be acceptable, and count as making ‘reasonable provision’ for the purposes of complying with the requirements of the Building Regulations. Example An old oil-fired boiler with a seasonal efficiency of 72% is to be replaced by a dual solid fuel boiler. The new dual solid fuel boiler should have: a. a seasonal efficiency not less than 65% (from Table 21 in this guide), and b. a carbon equivalent efficiency not less than 70%. A dual solid fuel boiler with a seasonal efficiency of 65% will meet condition b. as its carbon equivalent efficiency is: 65%(0.2980.226)85.7% where 0.298 and 0.226 kgCO2/kWh are the emission factors for oil and dual solid fuels respectively.    

                      Section 1.9 Summary of recommended minimum energy efficiency standards

                      1.9 Summary of recommended minimum energy efficiency standards ****Table 1   Recommended minimum energy efficiency standards for building   services****