Section 5: Provisions for liquid fuel storage and supply

  1. Performance
    1. Heating oil storage installations
      1. Protective measures against fire
        1. Oil supply pipe systems: means of automatic isolation
          1. Provisions where there is a risk of oil pollution
            1. LPG storage installations
              1. Tank location and protective measures
                1. Location and support of cylinders
                  1. LPG pipework (Informative)

                    Performance

                    5.1 In the Secretary of State’s view requirements J6 and J7 will be met if:

                    a. oil and LPG fuel storage installations including the pipework connecting them to the combustion appliances in the buildings they serve are located and constructed so that they are reasonably protected from fires which may occur in the buildings or beyond boundaries;

                    b. oil storage tanks, their ancillary equipment and the pipework connecting them to combustion appliances in the buildings used wholly or mainly for private dwellings:

                    i. are reasonably resistant to physical damage and corrosion and are designated and installed so as to minimise the risk of oil escaping during the filling or maintenance of the tank; and

                    ii. incorporate secondary containment when there is a significant risk of pollution; and

                    iii. are labelled with information on how to respond to a leak.

                    Heating oil storage installations

                    5.2 Guidance is given in this Approved Document on ways of meeting requirements J6 and J7 when proposing to construct oil storage systems with above-ground or semi-buried tanks of 3500 litres capacity or less, used exclusively for heating oil. Heating oils comprise Class C2 oil (kerosene) or Class D oil (gas oil) as specified in BS 2869:1998, liquid biofuel conforming to EN 14213:2003 and blends of mineral oil and liquid A way of meeting requirements J6 and J7 for such installations would be to follow the relevant recommendations in BS 5410-1:1997, whilst also adopting the guidance in paragraphs 5.4 to 5.12.

                    5.3 Requirement J7 does not apply to oil storage systems where the capacity of the tank exceeds 3500 litres, or where the tank is fully buried or where the building served is not wholly or mainly used as one or more private dwellings. However, requirement J6 applies to oil storage systems serving buildings of all descriptions, where the capacity of the tank exceeds 90 litres, with no upper capacity limit on application, and including cases where the tank is buried. For tanks with capacities in excess of 3500 litres, advice on ways of complying with requirements J6 and any other fire precautions legislation may be sought from the Fire Authority. In England tanks serving buildings which are not wholly or mainly used as private dwellings are likely to be subject to the Control of Pollution (Oil Storage) (England) Regulations 2001 (see paragraph 5.7).

                    Protective measures against fire

                    5.4 A way of achieving compliance with requirement J6 would be to adopt the guidance given in Table 10, which also offers advice on reducing the risk of fuel storage system fires igniting buildings and to make provision against the installation becoming overgrown. This can be achieved with a hard surface beneath the tank such as concrete, or paving slabs at least 42mm thick, extending out at least 300mm beyond the perimeter of the tank (or its external skin if it is of the integrally bunded type).

                    Table 10 Fire protection for oil storage tanks

                    Table 10 Fire protection for oil storage tanks

                    5.5 Fire walls should be built to be stable so as not to pose a danger to people around A way of achieving this when constructing masonry walls would be to follow the guidance on wall thickness in relation to height given in Your garden walls: Better to be safe than sorry (See ’Other Publications referred to’).

                    Oil supply pipe systems: means of automatic isolation

                    5.6 A way of meeting the requirement would be to install fuel pipework which is resistant to the effects of fire and to fit a proprietary fire valve system in accordance with the relevant recommendations in BS 5410-1:1997, Sections 8.2 and 8.3.

                    Provisions where there is a risk of oil pollution

                    5.7 The Control of Pollution (Oil Storage) (England) Regulations 2001 (SI 2001/2954) came into force on 1 March 2002. They apply to a wide range of oil storage installations in England, but they do not apply to the storage of oil on any premises used wholly or mainly as one or more private dwellings, if the capacity of the tank is 3500 litres or less. Advice on the construction of above-ground oil storage tanks that may be subject to these Regulations is contained in Above Ground Oil Storage Tanks: PPG2 (2004).

                    Note: Below ground oil storage is not recommended where other options are available as underground tanks are difficult to inspect and leaks may not be immediately obvious. Some guidance and further sources of reference are contained in installation, decommissioning and removal of underground storage tanks: PPG27(2002).

                    5.8 Requirement J6 applies to oil storage tanks of 3500 litres or less serving combustion appliances in buildings used wholly or mainly as private dwellings. In such cases, secondary containment should be provided where there is a significant risk of oil pollution. For the purposes of requirement J6, there is a significant risk of pollution if the oil storage installation:

                    a. has a total capacity of more than 2500 litres; or

                    b. is located within 10m of inland freshwaters or coastal waters; or

                    c. is located where spillage could run into an open drain or to a loose-fitting manhole cover; or

                    d. is located within 50m of sources of potable water, such as wells, bore-holes or springs; or

                    e. is located where oil spilled from the installation could reach the waters listed above by running across hard ground; or

                    f. is located where tank vent pipe outlets cannot be seen from the intended filling  point.

                    g. is located within Zone 1 (inner protection zone) of an Environment Agency Groundwater Source Protection Zone (SPZ).

                    Note: The location of SPZs is shown on the Environment Agency›s Groundwater Sources map available online at www.environment- agency.gov.uk/research/library/maps.

                    5.9 Inland freshwaters include streams, rivers, reservoirs and lakes, as well as ditches and ground drainage (including perforated drainage pipes) that feed into them.

                    5.10 When secondary containment is considered necessary, a way of meeting the requirement would be to:

                    a. provide an integrally bunded prefabricated tank; or

                    b. construct a bund from masonry or concrete in accordance with the general guidance in Above Ground Oil Storage Tanks: PPG2 (2004) and the specific advice in Masonry Bunds for Oil Storage Tanks or Concrete Bunds for Oil Storage Tanks, as However:

                    c. where the bund walls are part of the walls of a chamber or building enclosing the tank, any door through such walls should be above bund level; and

                    d. specialist advice should be sought where the bund has a structural role as part of a building.

                    5.11 Bunds, whether part of prefabricated tank systems or constructed on site, should have a capacity of at least 110 per cent of the largest tank they contain. Integrally bunded oil tanks that comply with the following standards will  meet this provision:

                    i. OFS T100 Oil Firing Equipment Standard – Polyethylene Oil Storage Tanks for Distillate Fuels (2008);

                    ii. OFS T100 Oil Firing Equipment Standard – Steel Oil Storage Tanks and Tank Bunds for use with Distillate Fuels, Lubrication Oils and Waste Oils (2008).

                    5.12 An oil storage installation should carry a label in a prominent position giving advice on what to do if an oil spill occurs and the telephone number of the Environment Agency’s Emergency Hotline (see Appendix F).

                    LPG storage installations

                    5.13 LPG installations are controlled by legislation enforced by the HSE or their agents. Factors which determine the amount of building work necessary for a LPG storage installation to comply include its capacity, whether tanks are installed above or below ground and the nature of the premises they A storage installation may be shown to comply with the legislation by constructing it in accordance with an appropriate industry Code of Practice, prepared in consultation with the HSE. However, for an installation of up to 1.1 tonne capacity, whose tank stands in the open air, following the guidance in this Approved Document and the relevant guidance in Approved Document B, will normally ensure that no further building work is needed to comply with other  legislation.

                     

                    Tank location and protective measures

                    5.14 For LPG storage systems of up to 1.1 tonne capacity, comprising one tank standing in the open air, a way of meeting the requirement J6 would be to comply with the relevant recommendations in the UKLPG Code Of Practice 1: Bulk LPG Storage at Fixed Installations Part 1 (2009) and BS 5482-1:2005 (see Appendix F and ‘Other Publications referred to’) whilst also adopting the following guidance:

                    5.15 The LPG tank should be installed outdoors and not within an open pit. The tank should be adequately separated from buildings, the boundary and any fixed sources of ignition to enable safe dispersal in the event of venting or leaks and in the event of fire to reduce the risk of fire spreading. A way of meeting the requirements in normal situations would be to adopt the separation distances in Table 11 and Diagram 43, which also offers advice on reducing the risk of LPG storage fires igniting the building. Drains, gullies and cellar hatches within the separation distances should be protected from gas entry.

                    5.16 Fire walls may be free-standing walls built between the tank and the building, boundary and fixed source of ignition (see Diagram 43 (b)) or a part of the building or a boundary wall belonging to the Where a fire wall is part of the building or a boundary wall, it should be located in accordance with Diagram 43(c) and, if part of the building, constructed in accordance with Diagram 43(d).

                    5.17 Suitable fire walls would be imperforate and of solid masonry, concrete or similar construction. They should have a fire resistance (insulation, integrity and stability (REI)) of at least 30 minutes but, if part of the building as shown in Diagram 43 (d), they should have a fire resistance (REI) of at least 60 minutes. To ensure good ventilation, fire walls should not normally be built on more than one side of a tank.

                    5.18 A fire wall should be at least as high as the pressure relief valve. It should extend horizontally such that the separation specified in Table 11 (Column B) is maintained:

                    a. when measured around the ends of the fire wall as shown in Diagram 43(b); or

                    b. when measured to the ends of the fire wall as shown in Diagram 43(c), if the fire wall is the boundary or part of the building.

                    Location and support of cylinders

                    5.19 Where an LPG storage installation consists of a set of cylinders, a way of meeting the requirements would be to follow the provisions below and as shown in Diagram 44.

                    5.20 Provisions should enable cylinders to stand upright, secured by straps or  chains against a wall outside the building in a well- ventilated position at ground level, where they are readily accessible, reasonably protected from physical damage and where they do not obstruct exit routes from the Satisfactory building work provisions would be to provide a firm level base such as concrete at least 50mm thick or paving slabs bedded on mortar at a location so that cylinder valves will be:

                    a. at least 1m horizontally and 300mm vertically from openings in the building or heat sources such as flue terminals and tumble-dryer vents; and

                    b. at least 2m horizontally from drains without traps, unsealed gullies or cellar hatches unless an intervening wall not less than 250mm high is provided.

                    Table 11 Fire protection for LPG storage tanks(see Diagram 43)

                    Table 11 Fire protection for LPG storage tanks(see Diagram 43)

                    Diagram 43 Separation of liquefied petroleum gas tanks of up to 1.1 tonne capacity from buildings,boundaries and fixed sources of ignition

                    Diagram 43 Separation of liquefied petroleum gas tanks of up to 1.1 tonne capacity from buildings,boundaries and fixed sources of ignition

                    Diagram 44 Location of LPG cylinders

                    Diagram 44 Location of LPG cylinders

                    LPG pipework (Informative)

                    5.21 For the puposes of the Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998 (GSIUR), where the LPG service pipework runs underground from the LPG tank to the premises it should be manufactured of non-corroding material. Pipe entering the building should be manufactured from metallic material and the transition joints between the non-metallic and metallic pipe should be located outdoors. The pipe should enter the building above ground and be The sleeve should be continuous through the external wall and be sealed at the inner wall to ensure that any escapes of gas are vented to the outside only. Further guidance is available in UKLPG Code of Practice 22 and Institution of Gas Engineers and Managers standard IG/TD/4.

                    5.22 In respect of installation pipework subject to the provisions of the GSIUR, Regulation 19(6) of the GSIUR requires that installation pipework should not be installed in any shaft, duct or void which is not adequately ventilated. This is also applicable to LPG pipework in buildings not subject to GSIUR. Guidance on the ventilation of pipe in ducts can be found in BS 8131:1997 Code of Practice for accommodation of building services in ducts.