Section 5: Reducing the sensitivity of the A3 building to disproportionate collapse in the event of an accident
Requirement :Disproportionate collapse
A3. The building shall be constructed so that in the event of an accident the building will not suffer collapse to an extent disproportionate to the cause.
In the Secretary of State’s view the Requirement of A3 will be met by an appropriate choice of measures to reduce the sensitivity of a building to disproportionate collapse should an accident occur.
0.1 The guidance in Section 5 deals with the means of meeting this performance criterion.
5.1 The requirement will be met by adopting the following approach for ensuring that the building is sufficiently robust to sustain a limited extent of damage or failure, depending on the class of the building, without collapse.
- A: Determine the building class from Table 11
- B: For Consequence Class 1 buildings – Provided the building has been designed and constructed in accordance with the rules given in this Approved Document, or other guidance referenced under Section 1, for meeting compliance with requirement A1 and A2 in normal use, no additional measures are likely to be necessary.
- C: For Consequence Class 2A buildings – In addition to the Consequence Class 1 measures, provide effective horizontal ties, or effective anchorage of suspended floors to walls, as described in the Standards listed under paragraph 5.2 for framed and load-bearing wall construction (the latter being defined in paragraph 5.3 below).
- D: For Class 2B buildings – In addition to the Consequence Class 1 measures, provide effective horizontal ties, as described in the Codes and Standards listed under paragraph 5.2 for framed and load-bearing wall construction (the latter being defined in paragraph 5.3 below), together with effective vertical ties, as defined in the Codes and Standards listed under paragraph 5.2, in all supporting columns and walls.
Alternatively, check that upon the notional removal of each supporting column and each beam supporting one or more columns, or any nominal length of load-bearing wall (one at a time in each storey of the building), the building remains stable and that the area of floor at any
storey at risk of collapse does not exceed 15% of the floor area of that storey or 100m2, whichever is smaller, and does not extend further than the immediate adjacent storeys (see Diagram 24).
Where the notional removal of such columns and lengths of walls would result in an extent of damage in excess of the above limit, then such elements should be designed as a ‘key element’ as defined in paragraph 5.3 below.
- E: For Consequence Class 3 buildings – A systematic risk assessment of the building should be undertaken taking into account all the normal hazards that may reasonably be foreseen, together with any abnormal hazards.
Critical situations for design should be selected that reflect the conditions that can reasonably be foreseen as possible during the life of the building. The structural form and concept and any protective measures should then be chosen and the detailed design of the structure and its elements undertaken in accordance with the recommendations given in the Codes and Standards given in paragraph 5.2.
Further guidance is given in Annexes A and B to BS EN 1991-1-7:2006 Eurocode 1:Actions on structures – Part 1.7: General actions – Accidental actions; with UK National Annex to BS EN 1991-1-7:2006 and BS EN1990:2002+A1:2005 Eurocode – Basis of structural design; with UK National Annex to BS EN 1990:2002+A1:2005.
5.2 Details of the effective horizontal and vertical ties including tie force determination, together with the design approaches for checking the integrity of the building following the notional removal of vertical members and the design of key elements, are given in the following Standards:
BS EN 1990:2002+A1:2005 Eurocode – Basis of structural design; with UK National Annex to BS EN 1990:2002+A1:2005
BS EN 1991-1-7:2006 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 1.7: General actions –Accidental actions; with UK National Annex to BS EN 1991-1-7: 2006 and BSI PD 6688-1-7: 2009
BS EN 1992-1-1:2004 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures – Part 1.1: General rules and rules for buildings; with UK National Annex to BS EN 1992-1-1:2004 and BSI PD 6687-1:2010
BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures – Part 1.1: General rules and rules for buildings; with UK National Annex to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005
BS EN 1994-1-1:2004 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures – Part 1.1: General rules and rules for buildings; with UK National Annex to BS EN 1994-1-1:2004
BS EN 1995-1-1:2004+A1:2008 Eurocode 5:Design of timber structures – Part 1.1: General Common rules and rules for buildings; with UK National Annex to BS EN 1995-1- 1:2004+A1:2008 and BSI PD 6693-1:2012
BS EN 1996-1-1:2005+A1:2012 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures – Part 1.1: General rules for reinforced and unreinforced masonry structures; with UK National Annex to
BS EN 1996-1-1:2005+A1:2012 and BSI PD 6697:2010
BS EN 1999-1-1:2007+A1:2009 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures – Part 1.1: General structural rules; with UK National Annex to BS EN 1999-1-1:2007+A1:2009 and BSI PD 6702-1:2009
5.3 DefinitionsNominal length of load-bearing wall
The nominal length of load-bearing wall construction referred to in 5.1d should be taken as follows:
- In the case of a reinforced concrete wall, the distance between lateral supports subject to a maximum length not exceeding 2.25H.
- In the case of an external masonry wall, or timber or steel stud wall, the length measured between vertical lateral supports.
- In the case of an internal masonry wall, or timber or steel stud wall, a length not exceeding 2.25H.
- Where H is the storey height in metres.
Note: Annex A of BS EN 1991-1-7:2006 with its UK National Annex provides corresponding guidance.
A ‘key element’, as referred to in paragraph 5.1d, should be capable of sustaining an accidental design loading of 34kN/m2 applied in the horizontal and vertical directions (in one direction at a time) to the member and any attached components (e.g. cladding etc.) having regard to the ultimate strength of such components and their connections. Such accidental design loading should be assumed to act simultaneously with all other design loadings (i.e. wind and imposed loading) in accidental actions loading combination.
**** Image Table 11 Building Consequence Classes
BS EN 1990:2002+A1:2005 with its UK National Annex provides guidance on accidentaldesign loading and accidental actions loading combination for ‘key elements’ and expressions 6.11a and 6.11b of that Standard are relevant.
Note: Annex A of BS EN 1991-1-7:2006 with its UK National Annex provides corresponding guidance for ‘key elements’.
For the purposes of this Guidance the term ‘load-bearing wall construction’ includes masonry cross-wall construction and walls comprising close centred timber or lightweight steel section studs.
- Alternative approach
- Seismic Design
5.4 Alternatively, for any building which does not fall into the classes listed under Table 11 or for which the consequences of collapse may warrant particular examination of the risks involved, the performance may be met by the recommendations given in the following Reports and Publications:
‘Guidance on Robustness and Provision against Accidental Actions’ dated July,1999.
‘Calibration of Proposed Revised Guidance on meeting Compliance with the Requirements of Building Regulation Part A3’. Revision of the Allott and Lomax proposals. Project Report No. 205966.
Both of the above documents are available on the following ODPM website http://www.odpm.gov.uk
‘Practical Guide to Structural Robustness and Disproportionate Collapse in Buildings’ dated October 2010. Published by The Institution of Structural Engineers, London.
5.5. Seismic design is not usually required for buildings classified by Table 11 as being in Consequence Classes 1, 2a and 2b. For buildings classified as Consequence Class 3 the risk assessment should consider if there is any need to carry out seismic design, although such a need is not an explicit requirement for these buildings.
**** Image Diagram 24 Area at risk of collapse in the event of an accident