Section 6 Wall and ceiling linings

Wall and ceiling linings

  1. Classification of linings
    1. Definition of walls
      1. Definition of ceilings
      2. Variations and special provisions
        1. Walls
          1. Fire-protecting suspended ceilings
            1. Fire-resisting ceilings
              1. Rooflights
                1. Special applications
                2. Thermoplastic materials
                  1. General
                    1. Windows and internal glazing
                      1. Rooflights
                        1. Lighting diffusers
                        2. Suspended or stretched-skin ceilings

                          Classification of linings

                          Table 10

                          6.1Subject to the variations and specific provisions described in paragraphs 6.2 to 6.16, the surface linings of walls and ceilings should meet the following classifications:

                          Definition of walls

                          6.2For the purpose of the performance of wall linings, a wall includes:

                          • athe surface of glazing (except glazing in doors); and
                          • bany part of a ceiling which slopes at an angle of more than 70deg to the horizontal.

                          But a wall does not include:

                          • cdoors and door frames;
                          • dwindow frames and frames in which glazing is fitted;
                          • e architraves, cover moulds, picture rails, skirtings and similar narrow members; or
                          • ffireplace surrounds, mantle shelves and fitted furniture.

                          Definition of ceilings

                          6.3For the purposes of the performance of ceiling linings, a ceiling includes:

                          • athe surface of glazing;
                          • bany part of a wall which slopes at an angle of 70deg or less to the horizontal;
                          • cthe underside of a mezzanine or gallery; and
                          • dthe underside of a roof exposed to the room below.

                          But a ceiling does not include:

                          • etrap doors and their frames;
                          • fthe frames of windows or rooflights (see Appendix E) and frames in which glazing is fitted; or
                          • garchitraves, cover moulds, picture rails, exposed beams and similar narrow members.

                          Variations and special provisions

                          Walls

                          6.4Parts of walls in rooms may be of a poorer performance than specified in paragraph 6.1 and Table 10 (but not poorer than Class 3 (National class) or Class D-s3, d2 (European class)), provided the total area of those parts in any one room does not exceed one half of the floor area of the room; and subject to a maximum of 20m2 in residential accommodation and 60m2 in non- residential accommodation.

                          Fire-protecting suspended ceilings

                          6.5A suspended ceiling can contribute to the overall fire resistance of a floor/ceiling assembly. Such a ceiling should satisfy paragraph 6.1 and Table 10. It should also meet the provisions of Appendix A, Table A3.

                          Fire-resisting ceilings

                          6.6Cavity barriers are needed in some concealed floor or roof spaces (see Section 9); however, this need can be reduced by the use of a fire-resisting ceiling below the cavity. Such a ceiling should comply with Diagram 35.

                          Rooflights

                          6.7Rooflights should meet the relevant classification in 6.1 and Table 10. However plastic rooflights with at least a Class 3 rating may be used where 6.1 calls for a higher standard, provided the limitations in Table 11 and Table 18 are observed.

                          Notes:No guidance is currently possible on the performance requirements in the European fire tests as there is no generally accepted test and classification procedure.

                          Special applications

                          6.8Any flexible membrane covering a structure (other than an air supported structure) should comply with the recommendations given in Appendix A of BS 7157:1989.

                          6.9Guidance on the use of PTFE-based materials for tension-membrane roofs and structures is given in a BRE report Fire safety of PTFE-based materials used in buildings (BR 274, BRE 1994).

                          Thermoplastic materials

                          General

                          6.10Thermoplastic materials (see Appendix A, paragraph 17) which cannot meet the performance given in Table 10, can nevertheless be used in windows, rooflights and lighting diffusers in suspended ceilings if they comply with the provisions described in paragraphs 6.11 to 6.15. Flexible thermoplastic material may be used in panels to form a suspended ceiling if it complies with the guidance in paragraph 6.16. The classifications used in paragraphs 6.11 to 6.16, Table 11 and Diagram 27 are explained in Appendix A, paragraph 20.

                          Notes:No guidance is currently possible on the performance requirements in the European fire tests as there is no generally accepted test and classification procedure.

                          Windows and internal glazing

                          6.11External windows to rooms (though not to circulation spaces) may be glazed with thermoplastic materials, if the material can be classified as a TP(a) rigid product. Internal glazing should meet the provisions in paragraph 6.1 and Table 10 above.

                          Notes:A "wall" does not include glazing in a door (see paragraph 6.2).
                          Attention is drawn to the guidance on the safety of glazing in Approved Document N Glazing - safety in relation to impact, opening and cleaning.

                          Rooflights

                          6.12Rooflights to rooms and circulation spaces (with the exception of protected stairways) may be constructed of a thermoplastic material if:

                          • athe lower surface has a TP(a) (rigid) or TP(b) classification;
                          • bthe size and disposition of the rooflights accords with the limits in Table 11 and with the guidance to B4 in Tables 17 and 18.

                          Lighting diffusers

                          Diagram 26

                          6.13The following provisions apply to lighting diffusers which form part of a ceiling and are not concerned with diffusers of light fittings which are attached to the soffit of, or suspended beneath, a ceiling (see Diagram 26). Lighting diffusers are translucent or open- structured elements that allow light to pass through. They may be part of a luminaire or used below rooflights or other sources of light.

                          6.14Thermoplastic lighting diffusers should not be used in fire-protecting or fire-resisting ceilings, unless they have been satisfactorily tested as part of the ceiling system that is to be used to provide the appropriate fire protection.

                          6.15Subject to the above paragraphs, ceilings to rooms and circulation spaces (but not protected stairways) may incorporate thermoplastic lighting diffusers if the following provisions are observed:

                          • aWall and ceiling surfaces exposed within the space above the suspended ceiling (other than the upper surfaces of the thermoplastic panels) should comply with the general provisions of paragraph 6.1 and Table 10, according to the type of space below the suspended ceiling.
                          • bIf the diffusers are of classification TP(a) (rigid), there are no restrictions on their extent.
                          • cIf the diffusers are of classification TP(b), they should be limited in extent as indicated in Table 11 and Diagram 27.

                          Suspended or stretched-skin ceilings

                          Table 11

                          6.16The ceiling of a room may be constructed either as a suspended or as a stretched skin membrane from panels of a thermoplastic material of the TP(a) flexible classification, provided that it is not part of a fire-resisting ceiling. Each panel should not exceed 5m2 in area and should be supported on all its sides.

                          • 1 Gallery floors with no alternative exit Diagram 1 Gallery floors with no alternative exit
                          • 2 Flat where all habitable rooms have direct access to an entrance hall Diagram 2 Flat where all habitable rooms have direct access to an entrance hall
                          • 3 Flat with restricted travel distance from furthest point to entrance Diagram 3 Flat with restricted travel distance from furthest point to entrance
                          • 4 Flat with an alternative exit but where all habitable rooms have no direct acess to an entrance hall Diagram 4 Flat with an alternative exit but where all habitable rooms have no direct access to an entrance hall
                          • 5 Multi-storey flat with alternative exits from each habitable room except at entrance level 5 Multi-storey flat with alternative exits from each habitable room except at entrance level
                          • 6 Multi-storey flat with protected entrance hall and landing Diagram 6 Multi-storey flat with protected entrance hall and landing
                          • 7 Flats served by one common stair,png Diagram 7 Flats served by one common stair
                          • 8 Flats served by more than one common stair 8 Flats served by more than one common stair
                          • 9 Common escape route in small single stair building Diagram 9 Common escape route in small single stair building
                          • 10 Travel distance in dead-end condition 10 Travel distance in dead-end condition
                          • 11 Alternative escape routes 11 Alternative escape routes
                          • 12 Inner room and access room 12 Inner room and access room
                          • 13 Exits in a central core Diagram 13 Exits in a central core
                          • 14 Open Connections Diagram 14 Open Connections
                          • 15 Merging flows at final exit Diagram 15 Merging flows at final exit
                          • 16 Subdivision of corridors Diagram 16 Subdivision of corridors
                          • 17 Dead-end corridors Diagram 17 Dead-end corridors
                          • 18 Maximum travel distances in a small two or three storey premises with a single protected stair to each storey Diagram 18 Maximum travel distances in a small two or three storey premises with a single protected stair to each storey
                          • 19 Progressive horizontal evacuation in care homes Diagram 19 Progressive horizontal evacuation in care homes
                          • 20 Refuge formed by compartmentation Diagram 20 Refuge formed by compartmentation
                          • 21 Refuge formed in a protected stairway Diagram 21 Refuge formed in a protected stairway
                          • 22 Max travel distance in a small three storey premises with a single stair to each storey Diagram 22 Max travel distance in a small three storey premises with a single stair to each storey
                          • 23 Max travel distance in a small two storey premises with a single open stair Diagram 23 Max travel distance in a small two storey premises with a single open stair
                          • 24 External protection to protected stairways Diagram 24 External protection to protected stairways
                          • 25 Fire resistance of areas adjacent to external stairs 25 Fire resistance of areas adjacent to external stairs
                          • 26 Lighting diffuser in relation to ceiling Diagram 26 Lighting diffuser in relation to ceiling
                          • 27 Layout restrictions on Class 3 plastic roofflights TP-b rooflights and TP b lighting diffusers Diagram 27 Layout restrictions on Class 3 plastic rooflights TP-b rooflights and TP b lighting diffusers
                          • 27a Layout restrictions on small Class 3 plastic rooflights TP b rooflights and lighting diffusers Diagram 27a Layout restrictions on small Class 3 plastic rooflights TP b rooflights and lighting diffusers
                          • 28 Compartment floors illustration of guidance in paragraph 8.16 Diagram 28 Compartment floors illustration of guidance in paragraph 8.16
                          • 29 Compartment walls and compartment floors with reference to relevant paragraphs in Section 8 Diagram 29 Compartment walls and compartment floors with reference to relevant paragraphs in Section 8
                          • 30 Junction of compartment wall with roof Diagram 30 Junction of compartment wall with roof
                          • 31 Protected shafts Diagram 31 Protected shafts
                          • 32 Uninsulated glazed screen separating protected shaft from lobby or corridor Diagram 32 Uninsulated glazed screen separating protected shaft from lobby or corridor
                          • 33 Provisions for cavity barriers Diagram 33 Provisions for cavity barriers
                          • 34 Cavity wall excluded from provisions for cavity barriers Diagram 34 Cavity wall excluded from provisions for cavity barriers
                          • 35 Fire-resisting ceiling below concealed space Diagram 35 Fire-resisting ceiling below concealed space
                          • 36 Provisions for cavity barriers in double-skinned insulated roof sheeting Diagram 36 Provisions for cavity barriers in double-skinned insulated roof sheeting
                          • 37 Pipes penetrating structure Diagram 37 Pipes penetrating structure
                          • 38 Enclosure for drainage or water supply pipes Diagram 38 Enclosure for drainage or water supply pipes
                          • 39 Flues penetrating compartment walls or floors Diagram 39 Flues penetrating compartment walls or floors
                          • 40 Provisions for external surfaces or walls Diagram 40 Provisions for external surfaces or walls
                          • 41 Relevant boundary Diagram 41 Relevant boundary
                          • 42 Notional boundary Diagram 42 Notional boundary
                          • 43 Status of combustible surface material as unprotected area Diagram 43 Status of combustible surface material as unprotected area
                          • 44 Unprotected areas which may be disregarded in assessing the separation distance from the boundary Diagram 44 Unprotected areas which may be disregarded in assessing the separation distance from the boundary
                          • 45 The effect of a canopy on separation distance Diagram 45 The effect of a canopy on separation distance
                          • 46 Permitted unprotected areas in small residential buildings Diagram 46 Permitted unprotected areas in small residential buildings
                          • 47 Limitations on spacing and size of plastic rooflights having a Class 3 or Class D-s3 d2 or TP b lower surface Diagram 47 Limitations on spacing and size of plastic rooflights having a Class 3 or Class D-s3 d2 or TP b lower surface
                          • 48 Example of building footprint and perimeter Diagram 48 Example of building footprint and perimeter
                          • 49 Relationship between buildings and hardstanding access roads for high reach fire appliances Diagram 49 Relationship between buildings and hardstanding access roads for high reach fire appliances
                          • 50 Turning facilities Diagram 50 Turning facilities
                          • 51 Provision of firefighting shafts Diagram 51 Provision of firefighting shafts
                          • 52 Components of a firefighting shaft Diagram 52 Components of a firefighting shaft
                          • 53 Fire-resisting construction for smoke outlet shafts Diagram 53 Fire-resisting construction for smoke outlet shafts
                          • C1 Measurement of door width Diagram C1 Measurement of door width
                          • C2 Cubic capacity Diagram C2 Cubic capacity
                          • C3 Area Diagram C3 Area
                          • C4 Height of building Diagram C4 Height of building
                          • C5 Number of storeys Diagram C5 Number of storeys
                          • C6 Height of top storey in buildingC6 Height of top storey in building Diagram C6 Height of top storey in building
                          • C7 Free area of smoke ventilators Diagram C7 Free area of smoke ventilators
                          • D1 Classification of Purpose Groups Diagram D1 Classification of Purpose Groups
                          • E1 Recessed car parking areas Diagram E1 Recessed car parking areas
                          • Table 1 Limitations on distance of travel in common areas of blocks of flats - see par 2.23 Table 1 Limitations on distance of travel in common areas of blocks of flats - see par 2.23
                          • Table 2 Limitations on travel distance Table 2 Limitations on travel distance
                          • Table 3 Minimum number of escape routes and exits from a room tier or storey Table 3 Minimum number of escape routes and exits from a room tier or storey
                          • Table 4 Widths of escape routes and exits Table 4 Widths of escape routes and exits
                          • Table 5 Maximum distances of travel in small premises with a protected stair Table 5 Maximum distances of travel in small premises with a protected stair
                          • Table 6 Minimum widths of escape stairs Table 6 Minimum widths of escape stairs
                          • Table 7 Capacity of a stair for basements and for simultaneous evacuation of the building Table 7 Capacity of a stair for basements and for simultaneous evacuation of the building
                          • Table 8 Minimum width of stairs designed for phased evacuation Table 8 Minimum width of stairs designed for phased evacuation
                          • Table 9 Provisions for escape lighting Table 9 Provisions for escape lighting
                          • Table 10 Classification of linings Table 10 Classification of linings
                          • Table 11 Limitations applied to thermoplastic rooflights and lighting diffusers in suspended ceilings and Class 3 plastic rooflights Table 11 Limitations applied to thermoplastic rooflights and lighting diffusers in suspended ceilings and Class 3 plastic rooflights
                          • Table 12 Maximum dimensions of building or compartment - non-residential buildings Table 12 Maximum dimensions of building or compartment - non-residential buildings
                          • Table 13 Maximum dimensions of cavities in non-domestic buildings - purpose Groups 2-7 Table 13 Maximum dimensions of cavities in non-domestic buildings - purpose Groups 2-7
                          • Table 14 Maximum nominal internal diameter of pipes passing through a compartment wall-floor - see par 10.5 onwards Table 14 Maximum nominal internal diameter of pipes passing through a compartment wall-floor - see par 10.5 onwards
                          • Table 15 Permitted unprotected areas in small buildings or compartments Table 15 Permitted unprotected areas in small buildings or compartments
                          • Table 16 Limitations on roof coverings Table 16 Limitations on roof coverings
                          • Table 17 Class 3 or Class D-s3 d2 plastic rooflights limitations on use and boundary distance Table 17 Class 3 or Class D-s3 d2 plastic rooflights limitations on use and boundary distance
                          • Table 18 TP a and TP b plastic rooflights limitations on use and boundary distance Table 18 TP a and TP b plastic rooflights limitations on use and boundary distance
                          • Table 19 Fire and rescue service vehicle access to buildings excluding blocks of flats not fitted with fire mains Table 19 Fire and rescue service vehicle access to buildings excluding blocks of flats not fitted with fire mains
                          • Table 20 Typical fire and rescue service vehicle access route specification Table 20 Typical fire and rescue service vehicle access route specification
                          • Table A1 Specific provisions of test for fire resistance of elements of structure etc Table A1 Specific provisions of test for fire resistance of elements of structure etc
                          • Table A1 continued Table A1 continued
                          • Table A2 Minimum periods of fire resistance Table A2 Minimum periods of fire resistance
                          • Table A3 Limitations on fire-protecting suspended ceilings - see Table A1 Note 4 Table A3 Limitations on fire-protecting suspended ceilings (see Table A1 Note 4)
                          • Table A4 Limitations on the use of uninsulated glazed elements on escape routes Table A4 Limitations on the use of uninsulated glazed elements on escape routes]
                          • Table A5 Notional designations of roof coverings Table A5 Notional designations of roof coverings
                          • Table A6 Use and definitions of non-combustible materials Table A6 Use and definitions of non-combustible materials
                          • Table A7 Use and definitions of materials of limited combustibility Table A7 Use and definitions of materials of limited combustibility
                          • Table A8 Typical performance rating of some generic materials and products Table A8 Typical performance rating of some generic materials and products
                          • Table B1 Provisions for fire doors Table B1 Provisions for fire doors
                          • Table C1 Floor space factors Table C1 Floor space factors
                          • Table D1 Classification of Purpose Groups Table D1 Classification of Purpose Groups
                          • Table Maximum dimensions of building or compartment - non-residential buildings Table Maximum dimensions of building or compartment (non-residential buildings)